In many instances, the original petitioner, PUBLIC, has had to go to court (High Court, Supreme Court, the National Green Tribunal) to argue on the basis of the 1992 judgment and the later EKW Act to ward off project proposals that were in fact disguised attempts at land-grabbing. In discussing what the farmers know and what the scientists know, we have placed our work in the context of a framework developed by Richards in 1979. Maiti, P and Banerjee, S. (1999). Science for the twenty-first century, a new commitment, World Conference on Science. In 1991 the West Bengal Government accepted an offer by a non-resident Indian to build a World Trade Centre and allotted 227 acres of wetlands for this purpose. Once that subversion is naturalised, then users are no longer seen as bearers of knowledge but recipients of expertise.The East Kolkata Wetlands is not only a unique urban ecosystem, its very existence tells us that a city can be imagined differently. Our conclusions suggest that the expertise of the farmers and the expertise of the scientists can be brought together. 18. 'Domestic and Municipal Wastewater Treatment by Some Common Tropical Aquatic Macrophytes', Indian Biologist. 'A preliminary account of major wetland fauna of Calcutta and surroundings', Ecology, 3(9). Cook, C.D.K. under the chairmanship of Minister-in-Charge, Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal. is a platform for academics to share research papers. 'History of the Gangetic Delta, Appendix 1 a', Report of the committee to inquire into the drainage conditions of Calcutta and adjoining area, Drainage Enquiry Committee, Government of Bengalk, Calcutta, India. Home (ed. Kormondy, E.J.(1974). These include Kolkata is an example of how natural wetlands are sometimes being utilised in developing countries. Mukherjee, D.P., Kumar, B., and Saha, R.(2005) Performance of Sewage - Ponds in Treating Wastewater (unpublished report), Central Pollution Control Board, Eastern Regional Office, Kolkata. 16. Several kinds of water hyacinths grow across these wetlands. National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, West Bengal State Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal and Ramkrishna Mission Narendrapur, West Bengal, India, executed by Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India, technical implementation by Kalpavriksh and administrative co-ordination by Biotech Consortium, India Ltd., funded by Global Environmental Facility through UNDP. Inst. This will only emerge out of an environmental justice movement.The East Kolkata Wetlands has strong community institutions that take the brunt of the state’s efforts to disenfranchise the poor and push them out of their habitat, but it is hard to find researchers working with them. A study of the fauna of the Salt Lake, Calcutta. To detect changes of ecological character and in land use in the East Kolkata wetlands. Base line document for management action plan, East Calcutta Wetlands and Waste Recycling Region, Calcutta Metropolitan Water and Sanitation Authority, Kolkata. In 2017 Section 3(2) of the Act, 2006 has been amended and the composition of the EKWMA has been changed. 3. 01/2002, Department of Business Management, University of Calcutta. Monkhouse, F.J., and Wilkinson, H.R.(1976). ____(2001). 'Information and the divergence between willingness- to-pay’,Environ.Econ.Mgmt. is a platform for academics to share research papers. Using the purification capacity of wetlands, the Indian city of Kolkata has pioneered a system of Microbial Diversity is an integral part of biodiversity which includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, protozoa and protists (Ghosh, A., 2007). What the users of the East Kolkata Wetlands need in order to continue providing “ecological subsidy” is recognition from the state, continued supply of wastewater, and law enforcement to protect them from the land mafia. 1, No. Microbial richness of a region is its unseen asset that needs to be explored and conserved. Chakraborty, S. (1970). Many varieties of vegetables are farmed here, including cauliflower, eggplant, pumpkin, sunflower and sacred basil. It showed that the village’s waterbody area had decreased from 88% in 2002 to 57% in 2006 to 19% in 2017.The crisis looms large. Sci. Costanza, R., d'Agre, R.,m Groot, R. de, Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limbujrg, K., Naeem, S.O., Neill, R. V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R. G., Sutton P., and Belt, M. van den (1997). Ghosh, S. K., and Ghosh, D. (2003).

/ title = "Food from Sewage: Fish from the East Kolkata Wetlands and the Limits of Traditional Knowledge", abstract = "This multi-disciplinary paper brings together two bodies of evidence that, to our knowledge, have not before been combined: literature about the efficient functioning of the East Kolkata Wetlands in the production of fish is juxtaposed against scientific research that documents the heavy metal pollution of those Wetlands caused by industries such as tanneries.

The EKWMA is a thirteen (13) member body with the Chief Secretary, Government of West Bengal, Secretaries of different Departments of State Govt. A report, 'The city of Kolkata generates an estimated 750 mililitres of sewage every day.